Many times these things are taught by their absence. A child will learn from the hardships their parent and family go through and will strive to not make the same mistakes. Experience is another teacher; every time someone succeeds by using these values they learn a lesson.
The problem is that everyone has different goals in life, so while it might seem apparent that some do not understand these things they may actually be using them in a different manner towards goals the observer does not understand or empathize with. I have seen workers avoid obeying orders when simple obedience would have been the easier course just for the sake of fighting authority.
People are strange. I think it would be a wasted effort to try to teach these things in a educational setting. I think these are things only learned through experience.
"It is true, that which I have revealed to you; there is no God, no universe, no human race, no earthly life, no heaven, no hell. It is all a dream--a grotesque and foolish dream. Nothing exists but you. And you are but a thought--a vagrant thought, a useless thought, a homeless thought, wandering forlorn among the empty eternities!"
He vanished, and left me appalled; for I knew, and realized, that all he had said was true.
Mark Twain The Mysterious Stranger