the most secular liberal state in Europe ?
bunch of the apartheid regimes?(most of the time)
christians were allowed to be christian, and they lived peacefully with muslims when christians took over under the first portuguese king muslims and jews were granted their guilds and lived with equal rights than everyone else, then under the following kings they were forced to convert or face punishment.
Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain
there you go..
Birth of the Golden Age
''After 681, the Christian Visigoths of Hispania persecuted the Jews severely; therefore, the Jews welcomed the Muslim Arab and mainly Berber conquerors in the 8th century. The conquered cities of Córdoba, Málaga, Granada, Seville, and Toledo were briefly placed under the control of the Jewish inhabitants, who had been armed by the Moorish invaders. The victors removed the Christian Visigoths' oppressive restrictions and granted the Jews full religious liberty''
End of the Golden Age
''The major Jewish presence in Iberia continued until the Jews were forcibly expelled en masse due to the edict of expulsion by Christian Spain in 1492 and a similar decree by Christian Portugal in 1497''
Something must have been going right or they wouldn't have had time to accomplish all that.
Meanwhile, my ancestors were painting themselves blue.....
^ The Ornament of the World by María Rosa Menocal, Accessed, 12 June 2006.
^ a b Lewis, Bernard W (1984). The Jews of Islam
^ a b Cohen, Mark R. (October 1995). Under Crescent and Cross. Princeton University Press. ISBN 069101082X.
^ Daniel J. Lasker (1997). "Review of Under Crescent and Cross. The Jews in the Middle Ages by Mark R. Cohen". The Jewish Quarterly Review 88 (1/2): 76–78.
^ a b Sephardim by Rebecca Weiner.
^ Fred J. Hill et al., A History of the Islamic World 2003 ISBN 0-7818-1015-9, p.73
^ Mark R. Cohen (1995), Under Crescent and Cross: The Jews in the Middle Ages, Princeton University Press, pp. 66–7 & 88, ISBN 069101082X, retrieved 2010-04-10
^ Mark R. Cohen (1995), Under Crescent and Cross: The Jews in the Middle Ages, Princeton University Press, pp. xvii, xix, 22, 163, 169, ISBN 069101082X, retrieved 2010-04-10
^ Mark R. Cohen (1995), Under Crescent and Cross: The Jews in the Middle Ages, Princeton University Press, ISBN 069101082X, retrieved 2010-04-10
^ Granada by Richard Gottheil, Meyer Kayserling, Jewish Encyclopedia. 1906 ed.
Esperanza Alfonso, Islamic culture through Jewish eyes : al-Andalus from the tenth to twelfth century, 2007 ISBN 978-0-415-43732-5
Mark Cohen, Under Crescent and Cross: The Jews in the Middle Ages 1995 ISBN 0-691-01082-X
Joel Kraemer, "Comparing Crescent and Cross," The Journal of Religion, Vol. 77, No. 3. (Jul., 1997), pp. 449–454