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  • the most secular liberal state in Europe ?

    1 50.00%
  • bunch of the apartheid regimes?(most of the time)

    1 50.00%
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Thread: TheMuslim rule of Spain?the most secular liberal state in Europe or apartheid regime?

  1. #21
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    Quote Originally Posted by litwin View Post
    some links?
    http://inventionofthejewishpeople.com/

    And see Kahina .. warrior Queen of the Berbers.

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  3. #22
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    Quote Originally Posted by m81 View Post
    you have all the reference at the end of page

    Notes

    ^ The Ornament of the World by Mara Rosa Menocal, Accessed, 12 June 2006.
    ^ a b Lewis, Bernard W (1984). The Jews of Islam
    ^ a b Cohen, Mark R. (October 1995). Under Crescent and Cross. Princeton University Press. ISBN 069101082X.
    ^ Daniel J. Lasker (1997). "Review of Under Crescent and Cross. The Jews in the Middle Ages by Mark R. Cohen". The Jewish Quarterly Review 88 (1/2): 76–78.
    ^ a b Sephardim by Rebecca Weiner.
    ^ Fred J. Hill et al., A History of the Islamic World 2003 ISBN 0-7818-1015-9, p.73
    ^ Mark R. Cohen (1995), Under Crescent and Cross: The Jews in the Middle Ages, Princeton University Press, pp. 66–7 & 88, ISBN 069101082X, retrieved 2010-04-10
    ^ Mark R. Cohen (1995), Under Crescent and Cross: The Jews in the Middle Ages, Princeton University Press, pp. xvii, xix, 22, 163, 169, ISBN 069101082X, retrieved 2010-04-10
    ^ Mark R. Cohen (1995), Under Crescent and Cross: The Jews in the Middle Ages, Princeton University Press, ISBN 069101082X, retrieved 2010-04-10
    ^ Granada by Richard Gottheil, Meyer Kayserling, Jewish Encyclopedia. 1906 ed.

    [edit] References

    Esperanza Alfonso, Islamic culture through Jewish eyes : al-Andalus from the tenth to twelfth century, 2007 ISBN 978-0-415-43732-5
    Mark Cohen, Under Crescent and Cross: The Jews in the Middle Ages 1995 ISBN 0-691-01082-X
    Joel Kraemer, "Comparing Crescent and Cross," The Journal of Religion, Vol. 77, No. 3. (Jul., 1997), pp. 449–454


    happy ready
    question how many churches were functional in Cordoba? hwy did Maimonides's family run away? if it was so polerant in Muslim "Spain"?
    Last edited by litwin; Dec 06 2011 at 05:07 PM.
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  4. #23

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    Quote Originally Posted by litwin View Post
    question how many churches were functional in Cordoba? hwy did Maimonides's family run away? if it was so polerant in Muslim "Spain"?
    There was many. Also the Jews had their own buildings.

    And Muslim Spain in that period was more tolerant than other regions. And Christians, Jews had possibilities to change of class category...

    Obviously, this freedom always being compared with other territories of the same period. And Christians, Jews... had more freedom than in the Catholic Spain.
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  5. #24
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    Quote Originally Posted by kilgram View Post
    There was many. Also the Jews had their own buildings.

    And Muslim Spain in that period was more tolerant than other regions. And Christians, Jews had possibilities to change of class category...

    Obviously, this freedom always being compared with other territories of the same period. And Christians, Jews... had more freedom than in the Catholic Spain.
    The mosque at Cordoba, that great beauty of world architecture, was built on the site of the church of St Vincent, demolished to make way for it. In the early years after the Muslim invasion, Christians had been allowed to worship in part of the cathedral site, all their other churches having been demolished at the conquest. But under the Ummayyads, the founders of the Caliphate of Cordoba, the Christians had to relinquish their part of St Vincent's.
    http://blogs.telegraph.co.uk/culture...rule_of_Spain/
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