The battles on the Eastern Front resulted in over 9 million military deaths on the Soviet side and Axis military deaths were over 5 million. Before the outbreak of the war, the 3.3 million inhabitants of Soviet Ukraine died in 1932 and 1933 due to Stalin's deliberate killing policy and among the nomads of Soviet Kazakhstan, about 1.3 million people died. Most of the Soviet killing took place in times of peace, and was related more or less distantly to an ideologically informed vision of modernization. Germany bears the chief responsibility for the war, and killed civilians almost exclusively in connection with the practice of racial imperialism. Germany invaded the Soviet Union with elaborate colonization plans. Thirty million Soviet citizens were to starve, and tens of millions more were to be shot, deported, enslaved, or assimilated.