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Thread: What is better - capitalism or Asian mode of production?

  1. Default What is better - capitalism or Asian mode of production?

    CLASSIFICATION OF FORMATIONS.

    Formations are steps of development of society. Development of society goes through steps – through formations. Marx listed four formations in work «To criticism of political economy»:

    • antique,

    • Asian,

    • feudal,

    • the capitalist.

    There was a scientific discussion on this matter in 1928-1935 in the USSR, as a result of I.Stalin summed up this discussion and called five formations:

    • primitive-communal,

    • slaveholding,

    • feudal,

    • capitalist,

    • the communistic. The socialism is the first phase of communism.

    Stalin forced to forget about an Asian formation, as Asian formation reminded a socialism very much. It turns out so, what the such society existed in the USSR as society exist in Ancient Egypt, and is it called as progress? The subject «Asian formation» became a taboo subject in the Soviet philosophy. K. Vittfogel wrote on this subject in the West in work «East despotism: comparative research of the total power" also R. Aron mentioned this subject in work «Democracy and totalitarianism». The reason of incompleteness of discussions about formations consists till today that philosophers couldn't find the correct criterion which distinguishes one formation from another. According to Marx, such criterion is the level of development of productive forces, but this criterion is too abstract, unsuitable for comparison of formations therefore one researchers allocated four formations, and other researchers– five, one considered an Asian formation distinct from other formations, and other researchers – so didn't consider.

    In my opinion, such criterion is the type of control in the economy sphere. Social control is a coercion to performance of standards of behavior by means of awards and punishments.

    • the primitive formation is constructed on moral control by means of a praise and abuse,

    • slaveholding formation is constructed on the armed control by means of corporal punishments,

    • feudalism constructed on administrative control by means of increase or demotion, by means of employment or dismissal,

    • capitalism – on economic control by means of an award and a penalty in money's form.

    Marx didn't invent a new type of control for communism and Marx considered even that all forms of social control will be cancelled under communism, but such forecast is a utopia, unrealizable dream since society can't exist without the relations of the social conflict and social control. There were attempts under socialism to use in economy ideological stimuluses – flags,, a medal of the Hero of socialist labour, article in the newspaper, glorifying Heroes, the photo on the Honor desk, Certificates of honor. Miner Alexey Stakhanov became the first Hero of socialist labour. But this campaign ended with a total failure since workers don't want to work for flags.

    Such sanctions influenced people under socialism really, as corporal punishments in the sphere of forced labor of prisoners in GULAG, threat of the death penalty for "wreckers" and administrative sanctions in the sphere of free work. Corporal punishments in the sphere of economy is a signs of slaveholding formation, and administrative sanctions are a signs of feudalism therefore the socialism is an Asian version of feudalism where there is impressive on the size a public sector of slaveholding economy. Socialism and Asiatic formation are slave-feudal formation. There was a slow evolution from slaveholding formation to feudalism in the Ancient East.

    Thus, in my opinion, in the history of society there were four formations:

    • primitive,

    • slaveholding,

    • feudal,

    • the capitalist.



    ASIAN FORMATION.

    The Asian formation was invented in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, later similar societies arose in Ancient India, Ancient China, Ancient Mexico, Ancient Peru, Byzantium and imperial Russia. "Asian" and despotic character of imperial Russia is dictated by an external factor, the Tataro-Mongolian gain. Vittfogel wrote that Russia was West "suburb" before the Mongolian invasion and after Mongols brought to Russia "east" orders borrowed by Mongols in China, Russia turned into East "suburb". A. Toynbee objected against it, so A. Toynbee was confident in the Byzantium origin of Russian civilization. In my opinion, USSR had built asiatic formation in countries from socialistic camp. In my opinion, Gittler strived for building of asiatic formation in Germany but Gittler could not do it.

    It was invented In Asia irrigation agriculture and cattle breeding. It was constructed in Asia enormous irrigational systems and other global objects - pyramids in Egypt, city walls in Mesopotamia, the Chinese wall in China. These enormous objects became an archaeological monuments and often useless way of waste of human energy which had no real advantage. It was invented in the Ancient East the state slavery, bureaucracy, taxes, hieroglyphic writing, a despotism, regular army, court, law enforcement agencies, the code of laws, state ownership on the earth, a temple economy and an economy of the Pharaoh. The bureaucracy had functions of taxation and the management of construction of global objects. The despotism or, in other words, tyranny was vital necessary in the countries of Ancient East since only the despot could force to repair every year irrigational systems and by that to prevent hunger. The Asian formation became an Asian version of a slaveholding formation which turned into an Asian version of the feudalism gradually. Lack of a private property on means of production was bright difference of Asiatic formation from West way of development.

    The countries of the Ancient East couldn't pass from feudalism to capitalism independently. For this the Countries of the West should win the East countries, Countries of the West should turn by East countries into the colonies, and then the countries of the West constructed capitalism in the East countries. Because of this threat, Japan and Russia constructed capitalism independently. Russian way of construction of capitalism at 19-20 eyelids was especially difficult, this way lay through a Bolshevist failure in this construction within 70 years.

    East society is based not on a private property, and on bureaucracy existence in heard by the despot. The despot and bureaucracy have the enormous power in the east. Any opposition to the despot pressed with help of system of the organized total terror. Society shared only on two classes: ruling and operated. Despot and bureaucracy belonged to ruling class. The operated class — is farmers, handicraftsmen, dealers, slaves. The idolized despotic power is supported by regular army, police and bureaucracy.
    There is a possibility of an eminence of people of a low origin if they are capable to something. Poor person could make an outstanding career in China and to become even the minister by means of delivery of school examinations.

    Vittfogel saw one of the reasons of backwardness of the Countries of the East from the West in lack of need to spend forces for irrigational works in the West. Vittfogel speaks on example of China about the regress caused by gains by nomads of farmers. Gain of Kiev Russia by Tataro-Mongol led to the same regress.

    Ancient Greece became a cradle of the western version of a slaveholding formation, and then Ancient Rome intercepted relay race from Ancient Greece. Western version of feudalism had arisen after invasion of Germen and crash of Ancient Rome in countries of Western Europe. This western versions of a slaveholding

    and feudal formations differed from Asian version a little. Climate was more damp in the West therefore there was a ploughed agriculture, and there were systems of irrigation agriculture never in the West therefore irrigational systems, the state slavery and a despotism weren't necessary in the West. Athens borrowed craft, sea trade and the alphabet from Phoenicia. Representative democracy and the aristocracy, the military ship – a triyer, the market, sports, theatrical competition, a private property on the earth and slaves were invented in Ancient Greece. Serfdom and vassal system, constructed on administrative control, existed in the West only.

    Capitalism was invented exactly in the West.

    It is possible to list four great English inventions which underlie capitalism:

    1). Economic control, an award and a penalty in sphere of economy, free labor.

    2). Inventions in techniques – firearms, the machine, the steam engine and so on.

    3). Market on the basis of use of free labor.

    4). Representative democracy, multi-party system, national elections, constitution, political freedoms. Capitalism was brought on bayonets of the West European colonialists to Asia.

    Conclusion: in my opinion, Vittfogel was right partly of the reasons of emergence of a despotism in the various countries. It concentrated own attention only to one of the reasons of emergence of a despotism and didn't see other reasons. In my opinion, the main reason of emergence of a despotism are extreme external and internal living conditions of society.

    Threat of external aggression, the big territory and imperial state system when there is a need of suppression of separatist revolts can be such conditions.

    Such conditions can be and need to organize irrigation agriculture. There was irrigation agriculture in Russia never, but there were threats of external aggression from numerous aggressive neighbors for Russia always. Russia possessed the big territory always and there was a need to suppress revolt of separatists always. Not casually that today Russia chose the most rigid model of democracy – the presidential republic, differently civil war against separatists could begin in Russia or Russia could lose war on the international scene.

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  3. Default

    RUSSIAN WAY OF DEVELOPMENT.

    Russia occupies median place between Europe and Asia therefore Russia invented nothing almost, and Russia borrowed social inventions from Europe or from Asia alternately. In general, there are very few countries which managed to make at least one social invention.

    List of teachers from Russia:

    • There were Varangians from the West, from Sweden which brought to Russia the princely power, trade on the rivers, the weapon and a military system, laws, collecting a tribute. Varangians became the first teachers for east Slavs.

    • The second teacher for Russia was Byzantium which took a median place between Europe and Asia too, Orthodox Christianity, writing, architecture was borrowed from Byzantium to Russia.

    • The third teacher for Russia were Tataro-Mongol and the Golden Horde from Asia which taught Russian to collect taxes from each yard and to build a despotism, as a result absolute monarchy was invented in the Moscow where the throne was handed down to the eldest son or the eldest brother

    • Western Europe (at first Poland, then Sweden, Holland, England, Germany, France became the fourth teacher for Russia in 17 century, and especially at Russian emperor Peter 1. Russia was at war with some of these countries alternately and Russia studied at them). Three English inventions - technical inventions, the market and economic control were borrowed from Western Europe. Russian emperor Nicolay 2 tried to enter the fourth English invention under pressing of liberals and revolutionaries - to construct system of representative democracy. Nicolay 2 had entered parliament and multi-party elections, but Nicolay 2 couldn't complete – didn't enter the constitution and parliament control over the government.

    There was a failure in social construction as a result of October revolution of 1917. Bolsheviks destroyed a capitalist system and constructed a primitive Asian formation by an example of Ancient Egypt.

    Four campaigns for construction of an Asian formation were carried out in the Soviet Russia:

    1). Military communism from 1918 to 1921. Lenin cancelled a private property on the earth and plants, economic control in economy, the market, unfinished under Russian emperor Nicolay 2 representative democracy. Lenin tried to cancel money, religion and the code of laws even vainly. This campaign caused to Civil war in Russia, but Bolsheviks managed to win in Civil war though Bolsheviks had to go on temporary concessions to peasants in the form of New Economic Policy from 1921 to 1928. Bolsheviks removed a ban on a small and average private property and small employment of labor, on private small trade within the country in economy at the New Economic Policy, the convertible currency – a gold tchervonets was entered, but Bolsheviks kept a ban on a large private property and private foreign trade. Such contradictions in economy led to New Economic Policy crises when peasants refused to sell bread at the low state's prices.

    2). Industrialization. Bolsheviks organized big buildings of plants of heavy and war industry, channels and the railways. The agriculture robbery, free work of prisoners, coercion to purchase of bonds of the state loan, vodka sale became sources of financing of these buildings.

    3). Collectivization. Bolsheviks tired out by peasants in collective farms violently and Bolsheviks forced to work by peasants in collective farms almost free of charge – for "ticks" in the magazine of workdays. Peasants ate and paid heavy taxes from a kitchen garden. Rich peasants were plundered and subjected to repression. As a result stimuluses to work disappeared at peasants completely, and the agricultural branch came to a condition of complete decline.

    4). Cultural revolution or big terror or «big cleaning». Lenin constructed oligarchy, that is the power of exclusive privilege's minority which was called as "Lenin guard». Fight had begun of fractions for the power in this «Lenin guard» in the 20th years. Stalin won in turn the paralyzed Lenin, Trotsky's fraction, fraction of Zinoviev and Kamenev, fraction of Bukharin, Rykov and Tomskiy. Stalin had destroyed physically almost all «Lenin guard» and Stalin had constructed a despotism in 1937-1938. Stalin had created instead of «Lenin guard» a new ruling layer – the nomenclature which was subordinated rigidly to the tyrant. Thus, Asian formation was completed and Asian formation represented a classical sample under Stalin.

    N. Khrushchev destroyed physically the new applicant in tyrants – L. Beria - and Khrushchev restored oligarchy with that gradual dismantle had begun of an Asian formation in Russia. Oligarchy degeneration began under Brezhnev. Gorbachev loosened oligarchy to the basis. Yeltsin had destroyed oligarchy and an Asian formation in Russia completely, Yeltsin constructed capitalism and system of representative democracy on the western samples. Prime-minister Gaidar had entered the market in 1991, Chubais entered a private property and economic control in economy. Yeltsin had entered the constitution and parliament in 1993. Putin put things in order after the period of reforms and strengthened this system.
    Asian formation was constructed and in other countries of socialist camp on the Soviet sample where these four campaigns were carried out too. As soon as the Soviet armies were disengaged from countries of Eastern Europe in 1989, there were "velvet" revolutions and capitalism was restored. The Asian formation was constructed by Mao Tse Tung in China who won civil war and carried out such campaigns, as «big jump», national communes and a cultural revolution. The policy of the New Economic Policy is carried out today in China, that is the market, an award and a penalty in economy and technical inventions are entered, but the power is in hands of communistic oligarchy, and students, who demanded democracy on Tiananmen Square, were crushed by tanks. The Asian formation remains today in Northern Korea and in Cuba.
    The conclusion consists that the socialism is regress in comparison with capitalism, and this grandiose communistic experiment led to big victims in Russia. Bolsheviks couldn't find the Russian way of development of the country in Russia, and Bolsheviks moved Russia to backward Asian way. Communists aren't able to build anything, except this primitive model of society today. Repetition of similar utopian experiment becomes for Russia catastrophe. Capitalism has been constructed in Russia today and it is good.

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