CLASSIFICATION OF FORMATIONS.
Formations are steps of development of society. Development of society goes through steps – through formations. Marx listed four formations in work «To criticism of political economy»:
• the capitalist.
There was a scientific discussion on this matter in 1928-1935 in the USSR, as a result of I.Stalin summed up this discussion and called five formations:
• the communistic. The socialism is the first phase of communism.
Stalin forced to forget about an Asian formation, as Asian formation reminded a socialism very much. It turns out so, what the such society existed in the USSR as society exist in Ancient Egypt, and is it called as progress? The subject «Asian formation» became a taboo subject in the Soviet philosophy. K. Vittfogel wrote on this subject in the West in work «East despotism: comparative research of the total power" also R. Aron mentioned this subject in work «Democracy and totalitarianism». The reason of incompleteness of discussions about formations consists till today that philosophers couldn't find the correct criterion which distinguishes one formation from another. According to Marx, such criterion is the level of development of productive forces, but this criterion is too abstract, unsuitable for comparison of formations therefore one researchers allocated four formations, and other researchers– five, one considered an Asian formation distinct from other formations, and other researchers – so didn't consider.
In my opinion, such criterion is the type of control in the economy sphere. Social control is a coercion to performance of standards of behavior by means of awards and punishments.
• the primitive formation is constructed on moral control by means of a praise and abuse,
• slaveholding formation is constructed on the armed control by means of corporal punishments,
• feudalism constructed on administrative control by means of increase or demotion, by means of employment or dismissal,
• capitalism – on economic control by means of an award and a penalty in money's form.
Marx didn't invent a new type of control for communism and Marx considered even that all forms of social control will be cancelled under communism, but such forecast is a utopia, unrealizable dream since society can't exist without the relations of the social conflict and social control. There were attempts under socialism to use in economy ideological stimuluses – flags,, a medal of the Hero of socialist labour, article in the newspaper, glorifying Heroes, the photo on the Honor desk, Certificates of honor. Miner Alexey Stakhanov became the first Hero of socialist labour. But this campaign ended with a total failure since workers don't want to work for flags.
Such sanctions influenced people under socialism really, as corporal punishments in the sphere of forced labor of prisoners in GULAG, threat of the death penalty for "wreckers" and administrative sanctions in the sphere of free work. Corporal punishments in the sphere of economy is a signs of slaveholding formation, and administrative sanctions are a signs of feudalism therefore the socialism is an Asian version of feudalism where there is impressive on the size a public sector of slaveholding economy. Socialism and Asiatic formation are slave-feudal formation. There was a slow evolution from slaveholding formation to feudalism in the Ancient East.
Thus, in my opinion, in the history of society there were four formations:
• the capitalist.
The Asian formation was invented in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, later similar societies arose in Ancient India, Ancient China, Ancient Mexico, Ancient Peru, Byzantium and imperial Russia. "Asian" and despotic character of imperial Russia is dictated by an external factor, the Tataro-Mongolian gain. Vittfogel wrote that Russia was West "suburb" before the Mongolian invasion and after Mongols brought to Russia "east" orders borrowed by Mongols in China, Russia turned into East "suburb". A. Toynbee objected against it, so A. Toynbee was confident in the Byzantium origin of Russian civilization. In my opinion, USSR had built asiatic formation in countries from socialistic camp. In my opinion, Gittler strived for building of asiatic formation in Germany but Gittler could not do it.
It was invented In Asia irrigation agriculture and cattle breeding. It was constructed in Asia enormous irrigational systems and other global objects - pyramids in Egypt, city walls in Mesopotamia, the Chinese wall in China. These enormous objects became an archaeological monuments and often useless way of waste of human energy which had no real advantage. It was invented in the Ancient East the state slavery, bureaucracy, taxes, hieroglyphic writing, a despotism, regular army, court, law enforcement agencies, the code of laws, state ownership on the earth, a temple economy and an economy of the Pharaoh. The bureaucracy had functions of taxation and the management of construction of global objects. The despotism or, in other words, tyranny was vital necessary in the countries of Ancient East since only the despot could force to repair every year irrigational systems and by that to prevent hunger. The Asian formation became an Asian version of a slaveholding formation which turned into an Asian version of the feudalism gradually. Lack of a private property on means of production was bright difference of Asiatic formation from West way of development.
The countries of the Ancient East couldn't pass from feudalism to capitalism independently. For this the Countries of the West should win the East countries, Countries of the West should turn by East countries into the colonies, and then the countries of the West constructed capitalism in the East countries. Because of this threat, Japan and Russia constructed capitalism independently. Russian way of construction of capitalism at 19-20 eyelids was especially difficult, this way lay through a Bolshevist failure in this construction within 70 years.
East society is based not on a private property, and on bureaucracy existence in heard by the despot. The despot and bureaucracy have the enormous power in the east. Any opposition to the despot pressed with help of system of the organized total terror. Society shared only on two classes: ruling and operated. Despot and bureaucracy belonged to ruling class. The operated class — is farmers, handicraftsmen, dealers, slaves. The idolized despotic power is supported by regular army, police and bureaucracy.
There is a possibility of an eminence of people of a low origin if they are capable to something. Poor person could make an outstanding career in China and to become even the minister by means of delivery of school examinations.
Vittfogel saw one of the reasons of backwardness of the Countries of the East from the West in lack of need to spend forces for irrigational works in the West. Vittfogel speaks on example of China about the regress caused by gains by nomads of farmers. Gain of Kiev Russia by Tataro-Mongol led to the same regress.
Ancient Greece became a cradle of the western version of a slaveholding formation, and then Ancient Rome intercepted relay race from Ancient Greece. Western version of feudalism had arisen after invasion of Germen and crash of Ancient Rome in countries of Western Europe. This western versions of a slaveholding
and feudal formations differed from Asian version a little. Climate was more damp in the West therefore there was a ploughed agriculture, and there were systems of irrigation agriculture never in the West therefore irrigational systems, the state slavery and a despotism weren't necessary in the West. Athens borrowed craft, sea trade and the alphabet from Phoenicia. Representative democracy and the aristocracy, the military ship – a triyer, the market, sports, theatrical competition, a private property on the earth and slaves were invented in Ancient Greece. Serfdom and vassal system, constructed on administrative control, existed in the West only.
Capitalism was invented exactly in the West.
It is possible to list four great English inventions which underlie capitalism:
1). Economic control, an award and a penalty in sphere of economy, free labor.
2). Inventions in techniques – firearms, the machine, the steam engine and so on.
3). Market on the basis of use of free labor.
4). Representative democracy, multi-party system, national elections, constitution, political freedoms. Capitalism was brought on bayonets of the West European colonialists to Asia.
Conclusion: in my opinion, Vittfogel was right partly of the reasons of emergence of a despotism in the various countries. It concentrated own attention only to one of the reasons of emergence of a despotism and didn't see other reasons. In my opinion, the main reason of emergence of a despotism are extreme external and internal living conditions of society.
Threat of external aggression, the big territory and imperial state system when there is a need of suppression of separatist revolts can be such conditions.
Such conditions can be and need to organize irrigation agriculture. There was irrigation agriculture in Russia never, but there were threats of external aggression from numerous aggressive neighbors for Russia always. Russia possessed the big territory always and there was a need to suppress revolt of separatists always. Not casually that today Russia chose the most rigid model of democracy – the presidential republic, differently civil war against separatists could begin in Russia or Russia could lose war on the international scene.