This is something that came up at work once again the other day, and I wanted to throw something out in here. Now as a side note, all legal references I am going to make are in accordance to California Penal Code. There may be some differences between what I am going to say and where others in here may actually live. But by and large, almost all states and municipalities have criminal codes that follow the same restrictions and wordings. California Penal Code 837. A private person may arrest another: 1. For a public offense committed or attempted in his presence. 2. When the person arrested has committed a felony, although not in his presence. 3. When a felony has been in fact committed, and he has reasonable cause for believing the person arrested to have committed it. One thing I run into at least once a week is somebody who claims that I have absolutely no right to arrest or detain them. The thing is, everybody has the right to arrest and detain individuals who break the law, it is known as the "Citizen's Arrest". And by and large, it is no different then the rights and powers of any Law Enforcement officer, other then in the circumstances in which they can imploy them. To make an arrest, legally you only need 1 of 2 things. Either eyewitness the act of a misdemeanor taking place and the individual involved, or know that a felony has taken place and that the individual you want to arrest is likely the one who comitted the crime. That is it. In other words, if you see somebody breaking out car windows with a metal pipe, you can place them under arrest for vandalism. If you see somebody near a broken window with a metal pipe, you can not place them under arrest. You did not see the actual crime, which is a misdemeanor. Not to go to the other case. If you walk around a corner and see a bloody individual laying on the ground and somebody standing above them with a bloody metal pipe, you can arrest them. The crime here is a felony, and there is reasonable belief that that person with the pipe did indeed commit the crime. And such an arrest is no different then that of LEO in reality. Fight the arrest, and you can be charged with resisting arrest. Attack the arresting individual and you will be charged with felonious assault in the attempt of resisting arrest. Now comes the part most people do not understand. The use of force. In attempting to perform a citizen's arrest, you are authorized to use the amount of force needed to detain the subject. You can hold their arm and have them sit down, have 2 guys pin them to the ground, handcuff them, or anything else. However, it must be in balance with the amount of force they resist with. If the individual complies and you body slam them, then you are excessive. If the individual resists and tries to pull out a weapon of some kind, body slamming them is perfectly fine. Myself, I have arrested hundreds of individuals. And at least once a week I have one of them (or another) scream out that I am not allowed to arrest them, or that I am not allowed to touch them. Sorry, that is wrong. And my biggest nightmare is that somebody else will jump in and think they know the laws better then I do. [video=youtube;62_XyWiMyt4]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=62_XyWiMyt4[/video] Notice towards the end, you had 2 people being handcuffed by the police, neither one of them was the security officers. One for Commercial Burglary (in California this is when a shoplifter uses force, a felony), and the other more then likely for assault and interfering with an arrest (and maybe conspiracy if he was involved in the theft). Out of my hundreds of arrests, I have had to handcuff probably 2 dozen individuals. I have taken them to the ground, thrown them into walls, and the like. And the response from the cops-DA when they want to press charges against me has always been "Well, you should not have tried to fight him." Not one single charge of excessive force ever against me. Now here is one other thing to remember, you can not do what this moron tried to do: [video=youtube;FwL5tupXXSA]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FwL5tupXXSA[/video] The problem here is that in order to perform an arrest, the crime has to be a misdeomeanor or felony, not an infraction. Seat belt violations, jaywalking, failure to stop for a stop sign, not using turn signals, those are all infractions. Try to perform an arrest on people who do things like this will get the arresting individual themselves arrested for false arrest.